Valuation Resources

Sports Teams, Clubs, and Franchises

SIC 7941 | NAICS 711211

The following guide to industry information, research, and analysis provides sources for industry trends and statistics, financial ratios, salary surveys, and more.

Select from the following sections or scroll below to view available resources:
  • Industry Analysis, Trends, Statistics, and Forecasts
  • Financial Statements and Financial Ratios
  • Compensation and Salary Surveys
  • Business Valuation Resources

For guides to other industries, see our index of over 400 industries.

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Industry Analysis, Trends, Statistics, and Forecasts

Sports Franchises  (view report)
Racing & Individual Sports  (view report)

Comprehensive research reports provide in-depth industry analysis and five-year growth forecasts, with special focus on the underlying structure and external forces and relationships that affect industries and their performance. Topics addressed in the reports include:

  • Market size, product segments, and major markets
  • Key statistics, market trends, and external drivers
  • Operating conditions and current performance
  • Competitive landscape and environment
  • Major company profiles and market shares
  • Five-year outlook and revenue forecast

American City Business Journals
Street & Smith's Sports Business Journal

Weekly trade journal features news and information for sports business professionals, with content categories covered in each issue including marketing and sponsorship, media, facilities, labor and agents, SBJ in-depth features, colleges, events and attractions, and leagues and governing bodies. Journal is available to subscribers only, with free four-week trial subscription available upon request.

SBG Companies Ltd
SportBusiness International Magazine

Monthly trade publication features news, information, and analysis for key areas of the business of sports including media, events, sponsorship, and stadia, with topics covered in each issue ranging from event bidding and awarding to business development and stadium and venue management. Publication is available to subscribers only, with free online demonstration available upon request.

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
PwC Sports Outlook

PwC report provides historical trend data and five-year revenue forecasts for the North American market by revenue segment, with segments covered including gate revenues from primary ticket sales for live events; media rights fees from TV, radio, satellite, and online broadcasters; sponsor- ship fees; and licensed merchandise sales. Report can be downloaded and viewed free online.

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Financial Statements and Financial Ratios

Industry Financial Ratios
Sports Teams and Clubs - Baseball, Basketball, Football, Hockey, and Soccer  Search for "711211"

Five-year financial statement analysis includes income statements, balance sheets, and key financial ratios, with data available by sales size range on a national, state, and metro area level including:

  • Income and expenses in dollars and percentages
  • Balance sheets in dollars and percentages
  • Profitability and return on investment ratios
  • Liquidity and working capital ratios
  • Asset turnover and efficiency ratios
  • Capital structure and debt service ratios

Sports Franchises
(see links for individual reports)

Financial benchmarking section of this report provides an analysis of industry income and expenses as a percentage of revenue by major category (e.g., purchases, wages, depreciation, marketing, rent, utilities, other costs, and earnings before interest and taxes) for the most recent year and line graphs indicating trends for each category over the past five years. Sample report can be viewed free online.

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Compensation and Salary Surveys

Contracts, Salaries, Caps, Bonuses, & Transactions

Comprehensive online resource provides detailed information on team payrolls, positional payrolls, top contracts, top salaries, salary caps, free agents, and player transactions for the NFL, NBA, MLB, NHL, and MLS, with information provided both on a organization level and individual player basis. Selected information is available free online, with full access to contract information available to subscribers.

Sporting Intelligence
Global Salary Survey

Annual survey covers the most popular leagues on a global basis, with information provided including teams ranked by average annual pay for active roster; summary of average pay per league including top payers, bottom payers, and top/bottom ratios; average salary at top 100 over last five years; and best average league attendances. Current and prior surveys can be downloaded and viewed online.

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Business Valuation Resources

The Business of Sports (3 Volume Set)
Chapter 5 - The Financial Valuation of Franchises
Humphreys, Howard, Praeger, 2008

The above chapter is included in "Volume 2: The Economics of Sports", with topics addressed in this chapter including historical valuations, key drivers of franchise value, league and team-specific issues, and franchise valuation using the revenue multiple and discounted cash flow methods. Volume 2 table of contents and searchable text can be viewed free online using's "Look Inside" feature.

The Handbook of Business Valuation and Intellectual Property Analysis
Chapter 10 - Sports Team Valuation and Venue Feasibility
Reilly, Schweihs, McGraw-Hill, 2004

Topics covered in this chapter include the economics of the four major professional leagues; types of buyers for professional teams; valuation approaches commonly used; income tax consequences of franchise acquisitions; and venue feasibility analysis and financing alternatives. Table of contents and selected excerpts from this chapter can be viewed online using's "Look Inside" feature.

The Business of Sports, 2nd Edition
Chapter 11 - Franchise Valuation
Rosner, Shropshire, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2010

Chapter 11 of this text provides an overview of the economics and market structure of professional sports, and also includes contributions from various authors on determinants of franchise values for North American professional leagues and the future of valuation creation. Detailed table of contents, index, and searchable text can be previewed free online via's "Look Inside" feature.

The Handbook of Advanced Business Valuation
Chapter 19 - Sports Team Valuation and Venue Feasibility
Reilly, Schweihs, McGraw-Hill, 1999

Topics covered in this chapter include the economics of professional sports leagues, owner/player relationships, laws and league regulations, broadcasting and cable connection, venue attributes and feasibility analysis, and team valuation methodology. Selected excerpts from this chapter, detailed table of contents, and index can be viewed free online using's "Look Inside" feature.

Business Valuation Resources, LLC
DealStats® - Private and Public Company Transaction Data

Interactive database provides detailed transaction data for over 38,000 private and public companies sold for prices ranging from under $250,000 to over $500,000,000, with valuation measures provided including market value of invested capital as a multiple of revenue, gross profit, EBIT, EBITDA, SDE, and book value of invested capital. User guide, free webinar, and sample reports are available online.

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Related Industries:
Health Clubs and Fitness Centers
Personal Trainers and Fitness Instructors
Sporting Goods Manufacturers
Sporting Goods Stores


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